Plaque control for the prevention and management of peri-implant mucositis is essential in the long-term maintenance of implants in health.74 Both patient-performed and professional plaque control can result in a reduction in clinical signs of peri-implant inflammation. Additionally, partially edentulous patients demonstrate higher rates of periopathogenic bacteria compared to fully edentulous patients likely resulting from transfer of bacteria and, in particular, pathogenic bacterial species from tooth sites to dental implant sites.74 Therefore, regular maintenance protocols which reduce overall bacterial loads are critical to reduce the transmission of periodontal pathogenic bacteria from active periodontal sites to implant sites in same mouth.75 Adherence to regular professional maintenance is key to detect and manage implants that are ailing or failing.74 A lack of adherence to supportive peri-implant therapies results in significantly higher frequencies of sites with mucosal inflammation and peri-implant bone loss. Therefore, tailored supportive peri-implant therapies, such as reinforcement of personalized oral hygiene instructions combined with professional implant and/or tooth cleaning, should be an integral part of implant therapy.74
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