The second category of errors involves factors associated with the panoramic equipment that may lead to poor image formation.
- Incorrect Exposure – The most common machine variable error occurs with selection of the incorrect exposure setting – usually kVp. Kilovoltage settings that are too high produce dark images while low kVp settings result in light images. Correction of this type of error usually involves a retake at a kVp that is either 5% above, in the case of an underexposed radiograph, or 5% below, in the case of an overexposed radiograph, the initial setting.
In the case of digital radiography, only overexposures can be corrected with use of image software. A severely underexposed image does not contain all of the information in the first place and density manipulation will not improve the image quality.
The two examples here show the effect of overexposure (Figure 44) and underexposure (Figure 45) on the panoramic image.