The variety of trades that tend to promote and use human trafficking victims are prostitution, escort work, pornography, and forced labor including farming, construction, tourism, domestic type labor and organ harvesting. In a published brochure by the Health and Human Services Administration, the trafficking victims can be found in places such as brothels, massage parlors, strip clubs, street prostitution, truck stops, online, domestic service, nannies, elder care, construction, landscaping, farms ranches, fisheries, manufacturing factories, hotels, hospitality industry, restaurants, food services, bars, spas, salons, sales crews, peddling and begging rings. The top venues for labor trafficking are: domestic, agriculture and traveling sales crews. The top venues for sex trafficking are massage/spa, residence-based sex, hotel-motel based and pornography.12
Health-related problems of trafficking include higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases, including increased rates of hepatitis, HIV and mental disorders (PTSD).9 The average life expectancy of a victim after they enter the world of trafficking is 7-10 years and death usually results from homicide, suicide, communicable diseases, overdose and addiction.3,16,25 Trafficking victims are easily controlled because of language barriers, social and geographic isolation with no other options and they face verbal, physical and mental abuse.18,27,28,31,32
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