Panoramic Radiographs

Extra-oral images like panoramic radiographs provide information on several structures in the head and neck region including maxillary sinus, cervical vertebra, and most importantly, teeth and surrounding structures in the maxilla and mandible. It is used to assess development of permanent teeth, stage of eruption, and to identify dental anomalies including hypodontia, hyperdontia, any bony pathologies etc. Panoramic radiographs are indicated in the late mixed dentition stage to assess the eruption pattern of permanent canines, and in permanent dentition to evaluate the position of third molars (Figure 4).

Figure 4.
ce63-fig 4