Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function are the direct effect of LAs on cardiac conduction, excitability, and contractility.2,4-10,19-21,26,27 Early signs of reduced cardiac output include sweating, faintness, and altered mentation; followed by bradycardia, hypotension, and progressive cerebral hypoxia leading to seizures. Depressed cardiac conduction, excitability, and contractility may progress to ventricular arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, and cardiac arrest.
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