Drugs seldom exert their beneficial effects without also causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). For example, some LAs or their metabolites are inherently toxic and produce cytotoxic reactions; other reactions may be immune mediated or idiosyncratic.2-10,18-25,49-51 In general, ADRs associated with the administration to lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, articaine, and bupivacaine are similar and may be consider together.2-10 However, some unique toxicities will be highlighted.
Your session is about to expire. Do you want to continue logged in?
WARNING! You did not finish creating your certificate. Please click CONTINUE below to return to your previous page to complete the process. Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course.