Precautions Related to the Administration of LAs

Drugs seldom exert their beneficial effects without also causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). For example, some LAs or their metabolites are inherently toxic and produce cytotoxic reactions; other reactions may be immune mediated or idiosyncratic.2-10,18-25,49-51 In general, ADRs associated with the administration to lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, articaine, and bupivacaine are similar and may be consider together.2-10 However, some unique toxicities will be highlighted.

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