1. Campbell D. Magnification a major aid to dentists…and now microdentistry’s time has come! Future Dent 1989; 4: 11.
  2. Kwan JY, Newkirk S. Applications and limitations of periodontal endoscopy. An examination of the use of this technique in nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Decisions in Dentistry. 2016; 2(08): 10-14. Accessed November 22, 2021
  3. Eke PI, Thorton-Evans GO, Wei L, Borgnakke WS, Dye BA, Genco RJ. Periodontitis in US Adults. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. 2009-2014. J Am Dent Assoc 2018; 149(7): 576-588.
  4. Listgarten MA. Pathogenesis of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol 1986; 13(5): 418-425.
  5. Curtis MS, Diaz PI, Van Dyke TE. The role of microbiota in periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2020; 83(1): 14-25.
  6. Meyle J, Chapple I. Molecular aspects of the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 2015; 69(1): 7-17.
  7. Page RC. Schroeder HE. Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work. Lab Invest 1976; 34: 235-249
  8. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Current concepts of bacterial etiology. J Periodontol 1992; 63: 322-331.
  9. Offenbacher S, Collins JG, Arnold RR. New clinical diagnostic strategies based on pathogenesis of disease. J Periodontal Res 1993; 28: 523-535.
  10. Aleo JJ, De Renzis FA, Farber PA. The presence and biological activity of cementum-bound endotoxin. J Periodontol 1991; 18: 160-170.
  11. Gernett JS. Root planing: A perspective. J Periodontol 1977; 48: 553-557.
  12. O’Leary TJ. The impact of research on scaling and root planing. J Periodontol 1986; 57: 69-75.
  13. Greenstein G. Periodotnal response to mechanical and non-surgical therapy. A review. J Periodontol 1992; 63: 118-130.
  14. Nyman S, Westfelt E, Sarhed G, Karring T. Role of diseased root cementum in healing following treatment of periodontal disease. A clinical study. J Clin Periodontol. 1988;15:464–468.
  15. Mandel ID. Calculus update: prevalence, pathogenicity and prevention. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995;126:573–580.
  16. Rabbani GM, Ash MM Jr., Caffesse RG. The effectiveness of subgingival scaling and root planing in calculus removal. J Periodontol 1981; 52: 119-123.
  17. Sherman PR, Hutchens LH Jr, Jewson LG, et al. The effectiveness of subgingival scaling and root planning. I. Clinical detection of residual calculus. J Periodontol. 1990;61(1):3-8.
  18. Waerhaug J. Healing of the dento-epithelial junction following subgingival plaque control. II: As observed on extracted teeth. J Periodontol. 1978;49(3):119-134.
  19. Bower RC. Furcation morphology relative to periodontal treatment. Furcation entrance architecture. J Periodontol. 1979;50(1):23-27
  20. Caffesse RG, Sweeney PL, Smith BA. Scaling and root planing with and without periodontal flap surgery. J Clin Periodontol 1986; 13: 205-210.
  21. Nesbit SP, Reside J, Moretti A, Gerdts G, Boushell LW, Barrero C. “Definitive Phase of Treatment” Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Dentsitry (Third Ed). 2017.
  22. American Academy of Periodontology. Guidelines for periodontal therapy (position paper) J Periodontol 2001; 72: 1624-1628.
  23. Jones W, O’Leary TJ. The effectiveness of in vivo root planing in removing bacterial endotoxin from the roots of periodontally involved teeth. J Periodontol 1978; 49: 337-342.
  24. Brewster D. “On an account of a rock-crystal lens and decomposed glass found in Niniveh.” Die Fortschritte der Physik (in German). Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. 1852; p. 355.
  25. Kriss TC.; Kriss, Vesna Martich. "History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying Glass to Microneurosurgery". Neurosurgery. 1998; 42(4): 899–907.
  26. Pommerville J. Fundamentals of microbiology. Burlington, MA: Eds. Jones and Barlett Learning. 2014; p. 6.
  27. Low JF, Dom TNM, Baharin SA. Magnification in endodontics: A review of its application and acceptance among dental practitioners. Eur J Dent. 2018; 12(4): 610-616.
  28. James T, Gilmour ASM. Magnifying loupes in modern dental practice: An update. Dental Update. 2010; 37: 633-636.
  29. Alhazzazi TY, Alzebiani NA, Alotaibi SK, et al. Awareness and attitude toward using dental magnification among dental students and residents at King Abdulaziz University, Faculty of Dentistry. BMC Oral Health. 2016; 17(1): 21.
  30. Aboalshamat K, Daoud O, Mahmoud LA, et al. Practices and Attitudes of Dental Loupes and Their Relationship to Musculoskeletal Disorders among Dental Practitioners. Int J Dent. 2020; 2020: 8828709.
  31. Congdon LM, Tolle SL, Darby M. Magnification loupes in U.S. entry-level dental hygiene programs--occupational health and safety. J Dent Hyg. 2012; 86(3): 215-222.
  32. Aghilinejad M, Kabir-Mokamelkhah E, Talebi A, Soleimani R, Dehghan N. The effect of magnification lenses on reducing musculoskeletal discomfort among dentists. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016;30:473. Published 2016 Dec 28.
  33. Maillet JP, Millar AM, Burke JM, Maillet MA, Maillet WA, Neish NR. Effect of magnification loupes on dental hygiene student posture. J Dent Educ. 2008; 72(1): 33-44
  34. Hayes MJ, Osmotherly PG, Taylor JA, Smith DR, Ho A. The effect of wearing loupes on upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among dental hygienists. Int J Dent Hyg. 2014; 12(3): 174-179.
  35. Wajngarten D, Garcia PPNS. Effect of magnification devices on dental students' visual acuity. PLoS One. 2019; 14(3): e0212793.
  36. Perrin P, Eichenberger M, Neuhaus KW, Lussi A. Visual acuity and magnification devices in dentistry. Swiss Dent J. 2016; 126(3): 222-235.
  37. Dadwal A, Kaur R, Jindal V, Jain A, Mahajan A, Goel A. Comparative evaluation of manual scaling and root planing with or without magnification loupes using scanning electron microscope: A pilot study. J Ind Soc Periodontol 2018; 22(4): 317.
  38. Corbella S, Taschieri S, Cavalli N, Francetti L. Comparative evaluation of the use of magnification loupes in supragingival scaling procedures. J Invest Clin Dent 2018; 9: e12315.
  39. Penmetsa G, Panda K, Manthena A, Korukonda R, Gadde P. Evaluating the efficacy of different magnification variables during root planing procedure under a surgical operating microscope in chronic periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial. J Ind Soc Periodontol 2020; 24(1): 32.
  40. Dohlman CF. Carl Olaf Nylen and the birth of the otomicroscope and microsurgery. Arch Otolaryngol 1969; 90: 813-817.
  41. Hoerenz P. The design of the surgical microscope: Part 1 Ophthalmic Surg 1974; 4: 40-45.
  42. Apotheker H, Jako GJ. A microscope for use in dentistry. J Microsurg 1981; 3: 7-10.
  43. Apotheker H. The application of the dental microscope: preliminary report J Microsurg 1981; 3: 103-106.
  44. Mallikarjun SA, Devi PR, Naik AR, Tiwan S. Magnification in dental practice: How useful is it? J Health Res Rev 2015; 2: 39-44.
  45. Sitbon Y, Attathom T. Minimal intervention dentistry II: part 6. Microscope and microsurgical techniques in periodontics. Br Dent J 2014; 216: 503-509.
  46. Liao H, Zhang H, Xiang J, Chen G, Cao Z. The effect of the surgical microscope on the outcome of root scaling. Am J Transl Res 2020; 12(11) 7199-7210.
  47. Caris FR, von Hochstetter A, Makek M, Engeike W. Diagnostic accuracy of TMJ arthroscopy in correlation to histological findings. J Craniomaxillofac Surg 1995; 23: 75-80.
  48. Engelke W, Schwarzwaller W, Behnsen A, Jacobs HG. Suantroscopic laterobasal sinus floor augmentation (SALSA): An up-to-5-year clinical study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2003; 18: 135-143.
  49. Engelke WGH. In situ examination of implant sites with support immersion endoscopy. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2002; 17: 703-706.
  50. Engelke W, Leiva C, Wagner G, Beltran V. In vitro visualization of human endodontic structures using endoscope systems. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015; 8(3): 3234-3240.
  51. Geisinger ML, Mealey BL, Schoolfield J, Mellonig JT. The effectiveness of subgingival scaling and root planing: An evaluation of therapy with and without the use of the periodontal endoscope. J Periodontol 2007; 78: 22-28.
  52. Kuang Y, Chen J, Feng G, Song J. Effects of periodontal endoscopy on the treatment of periodontitis. J Am Dent Assoc 2017; 148: 750-758.
  53. Kwan JY. Enhanced periodontal debridement with the use of micro ultrasonic, periodontal endoscope. J Calif Dent Assoc 2005; 33(3): 241-248. Erratum in J Calif Dent Assoc 2005; 33(4): 282.
  54. Avradopoulos V, Wilder RS. Chichester S. Offenbacher S. Clinical and inflammatory evaluation of perioscopy on patients with chronic periodontitis. J Dent Hyg 2004; 78(1): 30-38.
  55. Michaud RM, Schoolfield J, Mellonig JT, Mealey BL. The efficacy of subgingival calculus removal with endoscopy-aided scaling and root planing: a study on multi-rooted teeth. J Periodontol 2007; 78(12): 2238-2245.
  56. Blue CM, Lenton P, Lunos S, Poppe K, Osborn J. A pilot study comparing the outcome of scaling and root planing with and without Perioscope™ technology. J Dent Hyg 2013; 87(3): 152-157.
  57. Hu-Rui LL, Jia NL, Huang TH, et al. Effect of plaque and calculus removal by scaling and root planing with or without perioscope in chronic periodontitis. J Dent Prev Treatment 2013; 21(5): 261-264.
  58. Hou Y. Comparison of the effect of periodontal scaling under the periodontal endoscope and traditional periodontal scaling on periodontitis. Chinese Journal of Practical Medicine 2016; 43(18): 68-70.
  59. Liao YT, Liu Y, Jiang Y. Ouyang XY, He I, An N. A clinical evaluation of periodontal treatment effect using periodontal endoscope for patients with periodontitis: a smith mouth controlled study. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zu 2106; 52(1): 722-727.
  60. Zhou W. The application of periodontal endoscope to remove subgingival calculus. Health Res 2016; 36(3): 344-345.
  61. Geisinger ML. Letters. J Am Dent Assoc. 2018 149(3): 170.
  62. Stambaugh RV, Meyers G, Ebling W, Beckman B, Stambaugh K. Endoscropic visualization of the submarginal gingival dental sulcus and tooth root surfaces. J Periodontol 2002; 73(4): 374-382.
  63. Graetz C, Schorr S, Christofzik D, Dörfer C, Sälzer S. How to train periodontal endoscopy? Results of a pilot study removing simulated hard deposits in vitro. Clin Oral Invest 2020; 24: 607-617.
  64. Wilson Jr. TG, Carnio J, Schenk R, Myers G. Absence of histologic signs of chronic inflammation following closed subgingival scaling and root planing using the dental endoscope: human biopsies—a pilot study. J Periodontol 2008; 79(11): 2036-2041.
  65. American Dental Association. CDT 2021: Current Dental Terminology.
  66. Kepic TJ, O'Leary TJ, Kafrawy AH. Total calculus removal: an attainable objective? J Periodontol. 1990; 61(1):16-20.
  67. Brayer WK, Mellonig JT, Dunlap RM, Merinak KW, Carson RE. Scaling and root planing effectiveness: The effect of root surface access and operator experience. J Periodontol 1989; 60: 67-72.
  68. Hallmon WW, Rees TD. Local anti-infective therapy: mechanical and physical approaches. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol. 2003; 8: 99-114.
  69. Eaton KA, Kaiser JB, Davies RM. The removal of root surface deposits. J Clin Periodontol 1985; 12: 141-152.
  70. Sherman PR, Hutchens Jr. LH, Jewson LG, Moriarity JM, Greco GW, McFall Jr. WT. The Effectiveness of Subgingival Scaling and Root Planing I. Clinical Detection of Residual Calculus. J Periodontol 1990; 61: 3-8.
  71. American Society of Plastic Surgeons. “What is Microsurgery”. Accessed November 22, 2021
  72. Lee S, Frank DH, Choi SY. Historical review of small and microvascular vessel surgery. Ann Plast Surg 1983; 11: 53-62.
  73. Belcher JM. A perspective on periodontal microsurgery. Int J Periodont Rest Dent 2001; 21(2): 191-196.
  74. Cairo F, Carnevale G, Billi M, Pini-Prato G, Fibre retention and papilla preservation technique in the treatment of intrabony defects: a microsurgical approach. Int J Periodont Rest Dent 2008;28: 257-263.
  75. Cortellini P, Tonetti MS. Microsurgical approach to periodontal regeneration: initial evaluation in a case cohort. J Periodontol 2001; 72: 559-569.
  76. Shanelec DA. Periodontal microsurgery. J Esthet Rest Dent 2003; 15(Spec Iss): S118-S123.
  77. Hegde R, Sumanth S, Padhye A. Microscope-enhanced periodontal therapy: a review and report of four cases. J Contemp Dent Pract 2009; 10(5): E088-96.
  78. Gupta A, Bhat M, Mohammed T, Bansal N, Gupta G. Ergonomics in dentistry. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2014;7(1):30-34.
  79. Murphy DC (NYU College of Dentistry, USA). Ergonomics and dentistry. NY State Dent J. 1997 Aug-Sep; 63(7): 30–34.
  80. Chaikumarn M (Department of Human Work Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. Differences in dentist's working postures when adopting proprioceptive derivation vs conventional concept. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2005; 11(4): 441–449.
  81. Ludwig EA, et al. The effect of magnification loupes on dental hygienists’ posture while exploring. J Dent Hyg 2017; 91(4): 46-52.
  82. Aghilinejad M, Kabir-Mokamelkhah E, Talebi A, Soleimani R, Dehghan N. The effect of magnification lenses on reducing musculoskeletal discomfort among dentists. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016; 30: 473.
  83. Branson BG, Bray KK, Gadbury-Amyot C, et al. Effect of mangnification lenses on student operator posture. J Dent Educ 2004; 68(3): 384-389.
  84. Syme SE, Fried JL, Strassler HE. Enhanced visualization using magnification systems. J Dent Hyg 1997; 71(5): 202-206.
  85. Ludwig EA, McCombs GB, Tolle SL, Russel SM. J Dent Hyg 2017; 91(4): 46-52.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available