acanthosis nigricans – (ak-an-THOE-sis NIE-grih-kuns) a skin condition related to diabetes and/or obesity in which body folds and creases (e.g., neck, groin, armpit) become thickened and have a dark discoloration.

apoptosis – In biology, apoptosis (from the Greek words apo = from and ptosis = falling, commonly pronounced ap-a-tow’-sis) is one of the main types of programmed cell death (PCD). As such, it is a process of deliberate life relinquishment by a cell in a multicellular organism.

diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – A life-threatening hyperglycemic state in those individuals with diabetes with very little or no insulin production.

fasting plasma glucose (FPG) – to determine glucose levels, this test is done on patients when there is no calorie intake for at least eight hours.

hyperglycemia – High blood glucose levels.

hyperlipidemia – Elevated levels of lipids in the blood.

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) – A hyperglycemic state in individuals with type 2 diabetes; the absence of significant ketosis and acidosis distinguishes HHS from DKA.

hypoglycemia – Low blood glucose levels.

ischemic heart disease (IHD) – Ailments caused by a decreased blood supply due to narrowing of the coronary arteries.

ketosis – Presence of urinary ketones.

latent autoimmune diabetes of aging (LADA) – A slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes in older individuals.

nephropathy – Disease of the kidney. Diabetes is the most common cause of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) in the U.S.

neuropathy disorders – Affects the nervous system with classic symptoms of pain or numbness such as foot ulcers, bladder dysfunction, or sexual dysfunction.

normoglycemia – Blood glucose values of individuals with diabetes that are near or at the level of individuals without diabetes.

polydipsia – Increased thirst.

polyphagia – Increased hunger.

polyuria – Frequent urination.

retinopathy – Damage to the blood vessels in the retina. The leading cause of adult blindness is diabetic retinopathy.