Glossary

adenotonsillar/Adenoid hyperplasia – Over enlargement of adenoid (single mass of tissue similar to the tonsils but located in the very upper part of the throat, above the uvula and behind the nose in the nasopharynx) or tonsils that encircle the back of the throat. Acute infection causes the tonsils and adenoid to enlarge and grow excessively and these sponge-like glands can produce safe havens for bacteria.

allergic rhinitis – Allergic rhinitis is a collection of symptoms, predominantly in the nose and eyes, caused by airborne particles of dust, dander, or plant pollens in people who are allergic to these substances. When these symptoms are caused by pollen, the allergic rhinitis is commonly known as “hay fever.”

allograft – An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.

candidiasis – Infection of a fungus with the genus Candida.

graft versus host disease – A pathological condition in which cells from the transplanted tissue of a donor initiate an immunologic attack on the cells and tissue of the recipient.

immunosuppression – Suppression of the immune response, as by drugs or radiation, in order to prevent the rejection of grafts or transplants or to control autoimmune diseases.

lysozymes – Enzymes that help break down other bacteria, essentially destroying them. Found in mucous secretions most commonly in tears and saliva.

salivary agglutinin – A mucinlike glycoprotein known to mediate the aggregation of many oral bacteria in vitro like streptococci.

salivary flow rate – A value obtained when methods are used to evaluate salivary flow. The flow rate of saliva varies widely from person to person. High salivary rates are generally associated with oral health; low rates of flow, with oral disease. Norm or reference values below are used but are not fixed or absolute. Both, unstimulated (resting) whole saliva and stimulated whole saliva, rates are measured.

salivary peroxidase – One of several antimicrobial components of saliva that protects the oral cavity and upper digestive tract. Part of its effectiveness is the production of a small amount of hydrogen peroxide.

Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIgA) – Important immunoglobulin that is the first line of defense against bacteria, food residues, fungi, parasites and viruses, and a deficiency of sIgA is common. Low levels can make us more susceptible to infection and may be a fundamental cause of asthma, autoimmune conditions, Coeliac Disease, chronic infections, Crohn’s Disease, candidiasis, food intolerances, allergies, autism, and other behavioral problems. Very high levels of sIgA, can also be found in people who have chronic infections and whose immune system is overloaded or hypersensitive.

von Ebner’s glands – Serous glands of the tongue, located beneath the circumvallate and foliate papillae. They are specialized minor serous salivary glands that drain saliva into the trough at the base of these papillae.

Weber’s glands – Any of the various muciparous glands on either side of the posterior border of the tongue.

whole saliva flow rates (ml/min)

Normal Flow RatesAbnormal Flow Rates
Unstimulated (Resting) Whole Saliva0.3 - 0.4 ml/min< 0.1 ml/min
Stimulated Whole Saliva1 - 2 ml/min< 0.5 ml/min

xerogenic – Xero (dry; dryness) genic (producing; generating): that which pertains to the production of a dry condition.

xerostomia – A medical/dental term for dry mouth.