Classification of Gingival Diseases
Gingival Diseases Modified by Medications

Gingival Diseases Modified by Medications

Drug Influenced Gingival Diseases

Commonly used drugs can lead to gingival changes including hyperplasia (overgrowth) and gingivitis. There are no specific bacteria or risk factors other than poor plaque/biofilm control associated with these gingival diseases.

Drug Influenced Gingival Enlargement

Medications taken for certain conditions can cause gingival hyperplasia. Those medications include:

  • Phenytoin – used to control seizure/convulsive disorders
  • Cyclosporine – used for immunosuppressive/antirejection therapy in organ transplant patients
  • Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine, amlodipine and diltiazam – used for cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, angina and arrhythmias.
  • Sodium valproate – used as an antidepressant and anticonvulsant. Hyperplasia is possible but rare.

Drug Influenced Gingivitis

A systemic medication may cause an exaggerated response to plaque/biofilm.

Image: Drug influenced gingival enlargement.
Drug influenced gingival enlargement.

Oral Contraceptive Associated Gingivitis

The use of oral contraceptives causes gingival inflammation similar to that seen in pregnancy.