Classification of Gingival Diseases
Gingival Diseases of Specific Bacterial Origin

Gingival Diseases of Specific Bacterial Origin

These gingival diseases are caused by a specific bacterium this is not usually associated with plaque/biofilm. These atypical periodontal pathogens overwhelm the host’s resistance and cause an infection. Gingival impact includes painful ulcerations, chancres, mucous patches or highly inflamed gingiva.

Neisseria Gonorrhea Associated Lesions

This bacterium causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea. Diffuse erythema, small erosive pustules and edema may be seen in the oropharyngeal region as well as on the tonsils or uvula. Stomatitis, sore throat and lymphadenopathy may also be present.

neisseria-gonorrhea
Neisseria Gonorrhea associated lesions of the oropharynx

Treponema Pallidum Associated Lesions

This bacterium causes syphilis. In a primary syphilis infection, the lips, gingiva, tongue, tonsils and palate may be affected. While these lesions generally heal without intervention, they may lead to scarring. In secondary syphilis, white mucous patches may be present. In both stages, lesions are contagious. In tertiary syphilis, a granulomatous ‘gumma’ may cause perforation of the tongue or palate.

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Primary chancre of syphilis.

Streptococcal Species Associated Lesions

These bacteria cause an upper respiratory infection with a fever. Diffuse gingivitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and ulcers of the oral mucosa may be present.

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Streptococcal Species associated lesions