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Immunological and Inflammatory Aspects of Periodontal Disease

Course Number: 1

Type II - Cytotoxic Reaction (Antibody-dependent)

In a cytotoxic reaction, the antibody reacts directly with the antigen that is bound to the cell membrane to induce cell lysis through complement activation. These antigens may be intrinsic or “self” as in autoimmune reactions or extrinsic or “non-self.” Cytotoxic reactions are mediated by IgG and IgM. Examples of cytotoxic reaction are the Rh incompatibility of a newborn, blood transfusion reactions, and autoimmune diseases like Pemphigus Vulgaris, Bullous Pemphigoid, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Goodpasture's syndrome to name a few.