DentalCare Logo

Local Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

Course Number: 325

References / Additional Resources

  1. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Use of local anesthesia for pediatric dental patients. The Reference Manual of Pediatric Dentistry. Chicago, Ill.: American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; 2021:332-7.

  2. Food and Drug Administration. Risk of serious and potentially fatal blood disorder prompts FDA action on oral over-the-counter benzocaine products used for teething and mouth pain and prescription local anesthetics. May 31, 2018.Accessed 25 September 2021.

  3. Malamed SF. Handbook of Local Anesthesia, 7th edition, Mosby. 2019.

  4. Coté CJ, Wilson S. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, American Academy of Pediatrics. Guidelines for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures. Pediatr Dent 2019;41(4):E26-E52.

  5. Council on Clinical Affairs, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Guideline on Use of Local Anesthesia for Pediatric Dental Patients. Pediatr Dent. 2015 Sep-Oct;37(5):71-7. PMID: 26531078.

  6. Gibson RS, Allen K, Hutfless S, Beiraghi S. The Wand vs. traditional injection: a comparison of pain related behaviors. Pediatr Dent. 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):458-62. PMID: 11132503.

  7. Wright GZ, Kupietzky A. Behavior Management in dentistry for Children, 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons. Ames, IA, 2014, pp 107-124.

  8. Tavares M, Goodson JM, Studen-Pavlovich D, et al. Reversal of soft-tissue local anesthesia with phentolamine mesylate in pediatric patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Aug;139(8):1095-104.

  9. Hersh EV, Lindemeyer R, Berg JH, et al. Phase Four, Randomized, Double-Blinded, Controlled Trial of Phentolamine Mesylate in Two- to Five-year-old Dental Patients. Pediatr Dent. 2017 Jan 15;39(1):39-45.

Additional Resources


The author would to thank the Residents and staff members of the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Virginia Commonwealth University for their assistance in preparation of this presentation. Injection techniques were simulated, and no patients or clinicians were harmed or traumatized.