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What to Know About Whitening

Course Number: 491

References / Additional Resources

  1. Carey CM. Tooth whitening: what we now know. J Evid Based Dent Pract. 2014 Jun;14 Suppl:70-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jebdp.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Feb 13. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  2. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. Whitening survey. 2012 [cited 2019 Feb 20]. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  3. American Dental Association. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs. Tooth whitening/bleaching: treatment considerations for dentists and their patients. 2009 Sept [updated 2010 Nov; cited 2019 Feb 13]. Accessed September 11, 2022.

  4. Kugel G, Ferreira S. The Art and Science of Tooth Whitening. Inside Dentistry. 2006 Sep;2(7). Accessed September 2, 2022.

  5. Eachempati P, Kumbargere Nagraj S, Kiran Kumar Krishanappa S, et al. Home-based chemically-induced whitening (bleaching) of teeth in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 18;12:CD006202. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006202.pub2.

  6. Eastabrooks D. Oral hygiene assessment: soft and hard deposits. Dental hygiene: theory and practice, 4th ed. Darby ML (Ed), Walsh MM (Ed). St. Louis, MO. Saunders/Elsevier Publishing. 2015:282-93.

  7. Alqahtani MQ. Tooth-bleaching procedures and their controversial effects: A literature review. Saudi Dent J. 2014 Apr;26(2):33-46. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2014.02.002. Epub 2014 Mar 12. Accessed September 2, 2022

  8. Darby ML, Walsh MM. Stain management and tooth whitening. Dental hygiene: theory and practice, 4th ed. Darby ML (Ed), Walsh MM (Ed). St. Louis, MO. Saunders/Elsevier Publishing. 2015:516-33.

  9. Goldberg M, Grootveld M, Lynch E. Undesirable and adverse effects of tooth-whitening products: a review. Clin Oral Investig. 2010 Feb;14(1):1-10. doi: 10.1007/s00784-009-0302-4. Epub 2009 Jun 20.Accessed September 2, 2022

  10. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD). Policy on the Use of Dental Bleaching for Child and Adolescent Patients. Rev 2019. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  11. Curson MEJ, Duggal MS. Structure of teeth. Dental disease. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2nd ed. Boston, MA. Elsevier. 2003:1743-6.

  12. da Costa JB, McPharlin R, Hilton T, et al. Comparison of two at-home whitening products of similar peroxide concentration and different delivery methods. Oper Dent. 2012 Jul-Aug;37(4):333-9. doi: 10.2341/11-053-C. Epub 2012 Mar 21. Accessed September 2, 2022

  13. Luque-Martinez I, Reis A, Schroeder M, et al. Comparison of efficacy of tray-delivered carbamide and hydrogen peroxide for at-home bleaching: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Sep;20(7):1419-33. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1863-7. Epub 2016 Jun 11. Accessed September 2, 2022

  14. de Geus JL, Wambier LM, Kossatz S, et al. At-home vs In-office Bleaching: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Oper Dent. 2016 Jul-Aug;41(4):341-56. doi: 10.2341/15-287-LIT. Epub 2016 Apr 5. Accessed September 2, 2022

  15. Cordeiro D, Toda C, Hanan S, et al. Clinical Evaluation of Different Delivery Methods of At-Home Bleaching Gels Composed of 10% Hydrogen Peroxide. Oper Dent. 2019 Jan/Feb;44(1):13-23. doi: 10.2341/17-174-C. Epub 2018 Aug 24. Accessed September 2, 2022

  16. Sagel PA, Landrigan WF. A new approach to strip-based tooth whitening: 14% hydrogen peroxide delivered via controlled low dose. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2004 Aug;25(8 Suppl 2):9-13. Accessed September 2, 2022

  17. de Geus JL, Wambier LM, Boing TF, et al. At-home Bleaching With 10% vs More Concentrated Carbamide Peroxide Gels: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Oper Dent. 2018 Jul/Aug;43(4):E210-E222. doi: 10.2341/17-222-L. September 2, 2022.

  18. da Rosa G, Maran BM, Schmitt VL, et al. Effectiveness of Whitening Strips Use Compared With Supervised Dental Bleaching: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Oper Dent. 2020 Nov 1;45(6):E289-E307. doi: 10.2341/19-160-L.

  19. Pontes M, Gomes J, Lemos C, et al. Effect of Bleaching Gel Concentration on Tooth Color and Sensitivity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Oper Dent. 2020 May/Jun;45(3):265-275.

  20. Infantina V, Sindhu R, Savitha S et al. Effectiveness of various types of laser therapy during in office bleaching - systematic review International Journal of Current Science Research and Review ISSN: 2581-8341 Vol 05 Issue 08, August 2022.

  21. Maran BM, Matos TP, de Castro ADS, et al. In-office bleaching with low/medium vs. high concentrate hydrogen peroxide: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent. 2020 Dec;103:103499. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103499. Epub 2020 Oct 15. PMID: 33068711

  22. Maran BM, Burey A, de Paris Matos T, et al. In-office dental bleaching with light vs. without light: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent. 2018 Mar;70:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.11.007. Epub 2017 Dec 29. September 2, 2022.

  23. Matis BA. Degradation of gel in tray whitening. Compend Contin Educ Dent Suppl. 2000;(28):S28, S31-5; quiz S49.

  24. Al-Qunaian TA, Matis BA, Cochran MA. In vivo kinetics of bleaching gel with three-percent hydrogen peroxide within the first hour. Oper Dent. 2003 May-Jun;28(3):236-41. Accessed September 2, 2022

  25. García-Godoy F, Villalta P, Barker ML, et al. Placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical trial on the safety and efficacy of a low-gel, 14% hydrogen-peroxide whitening strip. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2004 Aug;25(8 Suppl 2):21-6.

  26. CBS Boston. Curious If Teeth Whitening At Mall Kiosks Is Safe. CBS Broadcasting Inc. 2010 Oct 1. Accessed September 2, 2022

  27. Good Morning America. Whitening Kiosks at the Mall. ABC News.

  28. Serraglio CR, Zanella L, Dalla-Vecchia KB, et al. Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter whitening strips as compared to home-whitening with 10 % carbamide peroxide gel--systematic review of RCTs and metanalysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2016 Jan;20(1):1-14. doi: 10.1007/s00784-015-1547-8. Epub 2015 Aug 7. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  29. Majeed A, Farooq I, Grobler SR, et al. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2015 Dec;25(12):891-6. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  30. Kurthy R. Why we see problems with teeth whitening: the science of whitening part III – whitening sensitivity. Dentaltown. 2013 Feb. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  31. Ribeiro JS, de Oliveira da Rosa WL, da Silva AF, Piva E, Lund RG. Efficacy of natural, peroxide-free tooth-bleaching agents: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and technological prospecting. Phytother Res. 2020 May;34(5):1060-1070. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6590. Epub 2019 Dec 16. PMID: 31845403.

  32. Silveira FM, Schuch LF, Schimidt TR, Lopes MP, Wagner VP, Só BB, Palo RM, Martins MD. Potentially carcinogenic effects of hydrogen peroxide for tooth bleaching on the oral mucosa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Prosthet Dent. 2022 Mar 10:S0022-3913(22)00083-X. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2022.02.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35282937.

  33. American Dental Association. Seal of Acceptance FAQ. Accessed September 2, 2022.

  34. ADA News. ‘Glamorous’ teeth whitening product earns ADA seal. 2017 Jun 19. Accessed September 11, 2022.

Additional Resources


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