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A Nonsurgical Caries Treatment Option: Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF)

Course Number: 678

References / Additional Resources

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  2. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2011b. National Health Expenditure Projections 2011–2021. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

  3. Twetman S, Dhar V. Evidence of Effectiveness of Current Therapies to Prevent and Treat Early Childhood Caries. Pediatr Dent. 2015;37(3):246-253.

  4. Fontana M, Pilcher L, Tampi MP, et al. Caries management for the modern age: Improving practice one guideline at a time. J Am Dent Assoc. 2018;149(11):935-937. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2018.09.004.

  5. Nelson T, Scott JM, Crystal YO, Berg JH, Milgrom P. Silver Diamine Fluoride in Pediatric Dentistry Training Programs: Survey of Graduate Program Directors. Pediatr Dent. 2016;38(3):212-217.

  6. Ngoc CN, Mehta R, Donovan TE, Ferreira Zandona AG. Teaching Silver Diamine Fluoride in U.S. Dental Schools' Predoctoral Curricula. J Dent Educ. 2018;82(12):1305-1309. doi:10.21815/JDE.018.141.

  7. AAPD Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on the Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Pediatric Dental Patients, Reference Manual 2018-2019, Pediatr Dent. 40(6):51-4. Accessed October 1st, 2023.

  8. Crystal YO, Niederman R. Silver Diamine Fluoride Treatment Considerations in Children's Caries Management. Pediatr Dent. 2016;38(7):466-471.

  9. Vasquez E, Zegarra G, Chirinos E, et al. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application. BMC Oral Health. 2012;12:60. Published 2012 Dec 31. doi:10.1186/1472-6831-12-60.

  10. Chibinski AC, Wambier LM, Feltrin J, Loguercio AD, Wambier DS, Reis A. Silver Diamine Fluoride Has Efficacy in Controlling Caries Progression in Primary Teeth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Caries Res. 2017;51(5):527-541. doi:10.1159/000478668.

  11. Oliveira BH, Cunha-Cruz J, Rajendra A, Niederman R. Controlling caries in exposed root surfaces with silver diamine fluoride: A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Am Dent Assoc. 2018;149(8):671-679.e1. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2018.03.028.

  12. Slayton RL, Urquhart O, Araujo MWB, et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guideline on nonrestorative treatments for carious lesions: A report from the American Dental Association. J Am Dent Assoc. 2018;149(10):837-849.e19. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2018.07.002.

  13. Crystal YO, et al. Use of Silver Diamine Fluoride for Dental Caries Management in Children and Adolescents, Including Those with Special Health Care Needs. Reference Manual 2018-2019, Pediatr Dent. 40(6):152-61.

  14. Chu CH, Lo EC, Lin HC. Effectiveness of silver diamine fluoride and sodium fluoride varnish in arresting dentin caries in Chinese pre-school children. J Dent Res. 2002;81(11):767-770. doi:10.1177/0810767.

  15. Crystal YO, Janal MN, Hamilton DS, Niederman R. Parental perceptions and acceptance of silver diamine fluoride staining. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017;148(7):510-518.e4. doi:10.1016/j.adaj.2017.03.013.

  16. Zhao IS, Mei ML, Burrow MF, Lo EC, Chu CH. Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Potassium Iodide Treatment on Secondary Caries Prevention and Tooth Discolouration in Cervical Glass Ionomer Cement Restoration. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(2):340. Published 2017 Feb 6. doi:10.3390/ijms18020340.

  17. Li R, Lo EC, Liu BY, Wong MC, Chu CH. Randomized clinical trial on arresting dental root caries through silver diammine fluoride applications in community-dwelling elders. J Dent. 2016;51:15-20. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2016.05.005.

  18. Craig G, Powell K. A Handbook of Expanded Atraumatic Techniques for the Apprehensive Child Dental Patient. Dental Outlook Publications, 2013. Accessed October 1st, 2023.

  19. Englander HR, James VE, Massler M. Histologic effects of silver nitrate of human dentin and pulp. J Am Dent Assoc. 1958;57(5):621-630. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.1958.0258.

  20. Gotjamanos T. Pulp response in primary teeth with deep residual caries treated with silver fluoride and glass ionomer cement ('atraumatic' technique). Aust Dent J. 1996;41(5):328-334. doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1996.tb03142.x.

  21. Macwan C, Deshpande A. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in dentistry: A review of literature. J Oral Res Rev. [serial online] 2014 [cited 2020 Sep 19];6:71-4. Accessed October 1st, 2023.

  22. Quock RL, Barros JA, Yang SW, Patel SA. Effect of silver diamine fluoride on microtensile bond strength to dentin. Oper Dent. 2012;37(6):610-616. doi:10.2341/11-344-L.

  23. Wu DI, Velamakanni S, Denisson J, Yaman P, Boynton JR, Papagerakis P. Effect of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) Application on Microtensile Bonding Strength of Dentin in Primary Teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2016;38(2):148-153.

  24. Puwanawiroj A, Trairatvorakul C, Dasanayake AP, Auychai P. Microtensile Bond Strength Between Glass Ionomer Cement and Silver Diamine Fluoride-Treated Carious Primary Dentin. Pediatr Dent. 2018;40(4):291-295.

  25. Frencken JE. The Art and Science of Minimal Intervention Dentistry and Atraumatic Restorative Treatment. Comberton, Orleton, UK. Stephen Hancocks; 2018.

  26. Seifo N, Robertson M, MacLean J, Blain K, Grosse S, Milne R, Seeballuck C, Innes N. The use of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in dental practice. Br Dent J. 2020 Jan;228(2):75-81. doi: 10.1038/s41415-020-1203-9. PMID: 31980777.

  27. Sihra R, Schroth RJ, Bertone M, Martin H, Patterson B, Mittermuller BA, Lee V, Patterson B, Moffatt ME, Klus B, Fontana M, Robertson L. The Effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride and Fluoride Varnish in Arresting Caries in Young Children and Associated Oral Health-Related Quality of Life. J Can Dent Assoc. 2020 Jun;86:k9. PMID: 32543369.

  28. Turton B, Horn R, Durward C. Caries arrest and lesion appearance using two different silver fluoride therapies on primary teeth with and without potassium iodide: 12-month results. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2021 Aug;7(4):609-619. doi: 10.1002/cre2.367. Epub 2020 Dec 28. PMID: 33370847; PMCID: PMC9632638.

Additional Resources