DentalCare Logo

Oral Piercings: Implications for Dental Professionals

Course Number: 688

References / Additional Resources

  1. Academy of General Dentistry. Dentists Tell Athletes Keep the Mouthguard, Take Out the Barbell. January 2012. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  2. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Policy on Intraoral/Perioral Piercing and Oral Jewelry/Accessories. 2016. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  3. American Dental Association. Oral Health Topics. Oral Piercing/Jewelry. 2020 Jul 01. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  4. American Dental Association. Healthy Mouth. Oral Piercings. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  5. Angel E. The piercing bible: the definitive guide to safe body piercing. Berkeley, CA. Crossing Press. 2009.

  6. Bagnall S. Oral piercing and dental complications. Vital. 2011 Winter;9(1):20-2. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  7. Fehrenbach MJ. Tongue piercing and potential oral complications. J Dent Hyg. 1998 Winter;72(1):23-5.

  8. Francu LL, Calin DL. Lingual piercing: dental anatomical changes induced by trauma and abrasion. Romanian J of Functional & Clinical, Macro- & Microscopica. 2012 Jan;11(1):74-7. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  9. Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. Complications of oral and peri-oral piercings: a summary of case reports. Int J Dent Hyg. 2011 May;9(2):101-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2010.00504.x.

  10. Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. The incidence of complications associated with lip and/or tongue piercings: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2016 Feb;14(1):62-73. doi: 10.1111/idh.12118. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

  11. Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. The prevalence of oral and peri-oral piercings in young adults: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):223-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00566.x.

  12. Herskovitz MY, Goldsher D, Finkelstein R, Bar-Lavi Y, Constantinescu M, Telman G. Multiple brain abscesses associated with tongue piercing. Arch Neurol. 2009 Oct;66(10):1292. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2009.204.

  13. Holbrook J, Minocha J, Laumann A. Body piercing: complications and prevention of health risks. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2012 Feb 1;13(1):1-17. doi: 10.2165/11593220-000000000-00000.

  14. Kapferer I, Steiner C, Beier U, et al. Biofilm formation on oral piercings. J. Stomat. Occ. Med. 2010 Sep;3: 171–6. doi: 10.1007/s12548-010-0059-z. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  15. Lakhan SE, Harle L. Fatal fulminant herpes simplex hepatitis secondary to tongue piercing in an immunocompetent adult: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2008 Nov 20;2:356. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-356.

  16. López-Jornet P, Camacho-Alonso F. Oral and dental complications of intra-oral piercing. J Adolesc Health. 2006 Nov;39(5):767-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.04.006. Epub 2006 Jul 10.

  17. Mishra P, Gupta M, Shrivastava K, et al. Oral Tattoos: 'Beauty Lies in the Eyes of the Beholder.' Adv Hum Biol. 2015;5(2):17-21. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  18. Peter T, Titus S, Francis G, et al. Ornamental Dentistry - An Overview. J Med Dent Sci. 2013 Feb 18;2(7):666-76. doi: 10.14260/jemds/321. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  19. Peticolas T, Tilliss TS, Cross-Poline GN. Oral and perioral piercing: a unique form of self-expression. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2000 Aug 15;1(3):30-46.

  20. Plessas A, Pepelassi E. Dental and periodontal complications of lip and tongue piercing: prevalence and influencing factors. Aust Dent J. 2012 Mar;57(1):71-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2011.01647.x.

  21. Pramod RC, Suresh KV, Kadashetti V, et al. Oral piercing: A risky fashion. J Educ Ethics Dent. 2012;2:56-60. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  22. Rademeyer C, Farley CL, Van Hoover C. Health Implications and Counseling Considerations for Individuals With Piercings and Tattoos. Nurs Womens Health. 2020 Jun;24(3):210-227. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2020.03.006.

  23. Rethman J. Educate patients about oral piercing risks. Dimensions of Dental Hygiene. November 2012; 10(11):74.

  24. Silk H, Romano-Clarke G. The seven tenets to teen oral health. Contemp Peds. 2009 June;26(6):52-9. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  25. Vieira EP, Ribeiro AL, Pinheiro Jde J, Alves Sde M Jr. Oral piercings: immediate and late complications. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Dec;69(12):3032-7. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2010.12.046. Epub 2011 May 7.

  26. Violante S. Concerns with oral piercing. RDH. 2018 Jun 01. Accessed March 8, 2021.

  27. Vozza I, Fusco F, Corridore D, Ottolenghi L. Awareness of complications and maintenance mode of oral piercing in a group of adolescents and young Italian adults with intraoral piercing. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2015 Jul 1;20(4):e413-8. doi: 10.4317/medoral.20487.

  28. Ziebolz D, Hildebrand A, Proff P, Rinke S, Hornecker E, Mausberg RF. Long-term effects of tongue piercing—a case control study. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Feb;16(1):231-7. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0510-6. Epub 2011 Jan 27.

Additional Resources