Salivary proteins, enzymes, immunoglobulins, ions, DNA, and mRNA are useful biomarkers for the detection of periodontal diseases.26,27 Increased levels of salivary interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been associated with higher risk to or increased severity of existing periodontal diseases.28-30 Some biomarkers are related to host immune responses to microbial infection.1,32
Salivary MMP-2,-8, and MMP-9 levels are significantly elevated in periodontal diseases due to neutrophil collagenase.26,33 Salivary IgG, cathepsin (an enzyme that degrades proteins) and osteocalcin (a non-collagenous protein secreted by osteoblasts) are significantly elevated in patients with periodontal diseases.34 Currently available point-of-care salivary diagnostics include MyPerioID®, MyPerioPath®, and Electronic Taste Chips Technology.8
MyPerioID® (OralDNA® Labs, Eden Prairie, MN) uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to help identify persons with genetic susceptibility to periodontal diseases. MyPerioPath® (OralDNA® Labs, Eden Prairie, MN) helps to identify the type and concentration of specific bacteria that are known to cause periodontal diseases. Electronic Taste Chips (Rice University, Houston, TX), a programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) technology, may be used to identify salivary biomarkers specific for periodontal disease.
Your session is about to expire. Do you want to continue logged in?
WARNING! You did not finish creating your certificate. Please click CONTINUE below to return to your previous page to complete the process. Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course.