Taste buds are located on the circumvallate and fungiform papillae of the tongue and to a lesser extent on the tonsillar pillars, base of the tongue, soft palate, pharynx and larynx.13 Hypogeusia - reduced ability or ageusia - loss of ability to taste sweet, sour, bitter, or salty substances is an early and frequent complaint associated with head and neck radiotherapy.13 Histologically, taste buds show signs of atrophy at 10 Gy and at tumoricidal doses the buds may be virtually obliterated.
Taste acuity may be decreased by a factor of 1,000 to 10,000 as a result of direct radiation damage to the taste buds and/or secondary to impaired salivary function and mucositis.13 Perception of acid and bitter is affected early, whereas sweet and salt acuity are affected as treatment continues. Restoration of taste sensation usually occurs within 2-4 months following radiotherapy; however, some patients may experience life-long alteration in or loss of taste perception.13
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