Plasma glucose concentration is closely regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Glucagon promotes hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and is a hyperglycemic agent. Insulin promotes cellular glucose uptake and is a hypoglycemic agent. Hypoglycemia (Table 3) is defined as sustained plasma glucose level <70 mg/dL. Heavy exercise, anxiety, and infection may cause hypoglycemia, but the most common cause is treatment with insulin and/or oral hypoglycemic agents and inadequate carbohydrate intake (delayed, decreased, or missed meals).
Table 3. Hypoglycemia.
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