DentalCare Logo

Choosing a Toothpaste: What’s the Big Deal?

Course Number: 565

References / Additional Resources

  1. Killgrove K. Roman Forum Yields Stash Of Teeth Extracted By Ancient Dentist. Forbes. 2015 May 21. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  2. Seagrave K. America brushes up: the use and marketing of toothpaste and toothbrushes in the twentieth century. Jefferson, NC. McFarland & Co.; 2010.

  3. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry. Teeth Whitening. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  4. Handzell S. Demand for cosmetic dentistry expected to increase in coming years. Money Digest. 2016 Sep 23.

  5. ADA. TWhitening: 5 Things to Know About Getting a Brighter Smile. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  6. FDI World Dental Federation. The Challenge of Oral Disease – A call for global action. The Oral Health Atlas, 2nd ed. Geneva, Switzerland; 2015. Accessed March 22, 2021.

  7. Wadsworth HN. Toothbrush for cleaning the teeth or dentures. Google Patents. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  8. Hyson JM Jr. History of the toothbrush. J Hist Dent. 2003 Jul;51(2):73-80.

  9. Wolf W. A history of personal hygiene – customs, methods and instruments – yesterday, today, tomorrow. Bull Hist Dent 1966;14:54-66.

  10. Panati C. Extraordinary Origins of Everyday Things. New York, NY. William Morrow Paperbacks; 1989.

  11. MIT. Toothbrush beats out car and computer as the invention Americans can't live without, according to Lemelson-MIT Survey. 2003 Jan 21. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  12. Tal M. Periodontal disease and oral hygiene. Described by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. J Periodontol. 1980 Nov;51(11):668-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1980.51.11.668.

  13. Slot DE, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema NA, Van der Weijden GA. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):187-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00557.x. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

  14. Valkenburg C, Slot DE, Bakker EW, Van der Weijden FA. Does dentifrice use help to remove plaque? A systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2016 Dec;43(12):1050-1058. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12615. Epub 2016 Oct 3.

  15. Dudding NJ, Dahl LO, Muhler JC. Patient reactions to brushing teeth with water, dentifrice, or salt and soda. J Periodontol 1960;31:386-392. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  16. van der Sluijs E, Slot DE, Hennequin-Hoenderdos NL, van der Weijden GA. Dry brushing: Does it improve plaque removal? A secondary analysis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2018 Nov;16(4):519-526. doi: 10.1111/idh.12358. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

  17. Pader M. Oral Hygiene Products and Practice. New York, NY. Marcel Dekker; 1988:164-168.

  18. Statista Research Dept. U.S. population: Do you use toothpaste? Statista. 2019 Aug 20. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  19. Lippert F. An introduction to toothpaste - its purpose, history and ingredients. Monogr Oral Sci. 2013;23:1-14. doi: 10.1159/000350456. Epub 2013 Jun 28.

  20. Berenstein N. How your toothpaste gets so minty fresh. Forbes. 2019 Nov 26. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  21. Klein H, Palmer CE. Dental caries in American Indian children. Public Health Bull. 1937;239:1-54.

  22. Dean HT. Endemic fluorosis and its relation to dental caries. 1938. Public Health Rep. 2006;121 Suppl 1:213-9; discussion 212.

  23. Bowen WH. Pointing the way to better oral health. 1956. J Am Dent Assoc. 2013 Oct;144 Spec No:37S-41S. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.2013.0247.

  24. Bibby BG. A test of the effect of fluoride-containing dentifrices on dental caries. J Dent Res. 1945 Dec;24:297-303. doi: 10.1177/00220345450240060301.

  25. Muhler JC, Radike AW, Nebergall WH, Day HG. Effect of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice on caries reduction in children. II. Caries experience after one year. J Am Dent Assoc. 1955 Feb;50(2):163-6. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1955.0028.

  26. Leaders in innovation: Creators of Crest. Meet 2019 NIHF Inductees Joseph Muhler and William Nebergall! National Inventors Hall of Fame. 2019. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  27. St John S, White DJ. History of the Development of Abrasivity Limits for Dentifrices. J Clin Dent. 2015;26(2):50-4.

  28. Maragliano-Muniz P. Protected by a safe RDA: Setting the record straight about toothpaste abrasivity. RDH. 2016 Dec 13. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  29. Joiner A. The Cleaning Teeth. In: Handbook for cleaning/decontamination of surfaces, Vol. 1. Johansson I, Somasundaran P(Eds.). Elsevier Science. 2007:371-405,9.

  30. Bankova M, Vogt R, Sun S, Saphow JW, Yeung V, Bariexca T, Semeghini V, Tipnis T, Lee C. The Science of Developing Appealing Flavors to Drive Compliance. J Clin Dent. 2018 Sep;29(Spec No A):A20-24.

  31. Focused Ultrasound Foundation. Drug Delivery Vehicles. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  32. Peres MA, Macpherson LMD, Weyant RJ, et al. Oral diseases: a global public health challenge. Lancet. 2019 Jul 20;394(10194):249-260. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31146-8. Erratum in: Lancet. 2019 Sep 21;394(10203):1010.

  33. Frencken JE, Sharma P, Stenhouse L, Green D, Laverty D, Dietrich T. Global epidemiology of dental caries and severe periodontitis - a comprehensive review. J Clin Periodontol. 2017 Mar;44 Suppl 18:S94-S105. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12677.

  34. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Achievements in public health, 1900-1999: fluoridation of drinking water to prevent dental caries. JAMA. 2000 Mar 8;283(10):1283-6. doi: 10.1001/jama.283.10.1283.

  35. Marcenes W, Kassebaum NJ, Bernabé E, Flaxman A, Naghavi M, Lopez A, Murray CJ. Global burden of oral conditions in 1990-2010: a systematic analysis. J Dent Res. 2013 Jul;92(7):592-7. doi: 10.1177/0022034513490168. Epub 2013 May 29.

  36. Featherstone JD. The caries balance: the basis for caries management by risk assessment. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2004;2 Suppl 1:259-64.

  37. FDI World Dental Federation. Sugars and dental caries: A practical guide to reduce sugars consumption and curb the epidemic of dental caries. FDI. 2016. Accessed March 22, 2021.

  38. Slot DE, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema NA, Van der Weijden GA. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):187-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00557.x. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

  39. Poyato-Ferrera M, Segura-Egea JJ, Bullón-Fernández P. Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal. Int J Dent Hyg. 2003 May;1(2):110-4. doi: 10.1034/j.1601-5037.2003.00018.x.

  40. CDC. Ten Great Public Health Achievements -- United States, 1900-1999. MMWR. 1999 Apr 02;48(12):241-243. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  41. Silverstone LM. Laboratory studies on the demineralization and remineralization of human enamel in relation to caries mechanisms. Aust Dent J. 1980 Jun;25(3):163-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.1980.tb03707.x.

  42. Featherstone JD. The continuum of dental caries--evidence for a dynamic disease process. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C39-42. doi: 10.1177/154405910408301s08.

  43. Moreno EC, Kresak M, Zahradnik RT. Physicochemical aspects of fluoride-apatite systems relevant to the study of dental caries. Caries Res. 1977;11 Suppl 1:142-71. doi: 10.1159/000260299.

  44. Wefel JS. Mechanisms of action of fluoride. In: Pediatric Dentistry: Scientific Foundations and Clinical Practice. Stewart R(Ed). St. Louis, MO. Mosby. 1982.

  45. O'Mullane DM, Baez RJ, Jones S, Lennon MA, Petersen PE, Rugg-Gunn AJ, Whelton H, Whitford GM. Fluoride and Oral Health. Community Dent Health. 2016 Jun;33(2):69-99.

  46. CDC. Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States. MMWR. 2001 Aug 17;50(RR14):1-42. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  47. Stookey GK. Are all fluoride dentifrices the same? - Clinical Uses of Fluorides (Current Problems in Clinical Dentistry). Wei SHY(Ed). London. 1986. 105-131.

  48. Clarkson JE, Ellwood RP, Chandler RE. A comprehensive summary of fluoride dentifrice caries clinical trials. Am J Dent. 1993 Sep;6 Spec No:S59-106.

  49. Pratt E. Why You Shouldn’t Buy Fluoride-Free Toothpaste. Healthline. 2019 Jan 03. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  50. [ADA. Oral Health Topics. Toothpastes. 2019 Aug 29.](ADA. Oral Health Topics. Toothpastes. 2019 Aug 29.) Accessed December 8, 2020.

  51. Varela-Centelles P, Diz-Iglesias P, Estany-Gestal A, et al. Periodontitis Awareness Amongst the General Public: A Critical Systematic Review to Identify Gaps of Knowledge. J Periodontol. 2016 Apr;87(4):403-15. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150458. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

  52. Albandar JM, Rams TE. Global epidemiology of periodontal diseases: an overview. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:7-10. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.290101.x.

  53. Stamm JW. Epidemiology of gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1986 May;13(5):360-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1986.tb01473.x.

  54. American Academy of Periodontology. CDC: Half of American Adults Have Periodontal Disease. 2012 Sep 04. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  55. Oscarsson J, Johansson A. Comment from the Editor to the Special Issue: "Periodontitis: From Dysbiotic Microbial Immune Response to Systemic Inflammation". J Clin Med. 2019 Oct 16;8(10):1706. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101706.

  56. [American Academy of Periodontology. Gum Disease and Heart Disease.](American Academy of Periodontology. Gum Disease and Heart Disease.) Accessed December 8, 2020.

  57. Löe H, Theilade E, Jensen SB. Experimental gingivitis in man. J Periodontol. May-Jun 1965;36:177-87. doi: 10.1902/jop.1965.36.3.177.

  58. Löe H. Experimental gingivitis in man. In: This Week’s Citation Classic. Garfield Library – UPenn. 1982 Sep 13.

  59. Theilade E, Wright WH, Jensen SB, Löe H. Experimental gingivitis in man. II. A longitudinal clinical and bacteriological investigation. J Periodontal Res. 1966;1:1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1966.tb01842.x.

  60. Löe H, Theilade E, Jensen SB, Schiott CR. Experimental gingivitis in man. 3. Influence of antibiotics on gingival plaque development. J Periodontal Res. 1967;2(4):282-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.1967.tb01901.x.

  61. Löe H. Human research model for the production and prevention of gingivitis. J Dent Res 1971;50:256-64.

  62. Fleming EB, Nguyen D, Afful J, Carroll MD, Woods PD. Prevalence of daily flossing among adults by selected risk factors for periodontal disease-United States, 2011-2014. J Periodontol. 2018 Aug;89(8):933-939. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0572.

  63. Sternberg S. How Many Americans Floss Their Teeth? U.S.News. 2016 May 02. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  64. Macgregor ID, Balding JW, Regis D. Flossing behaviour in English adolescents. J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Apr;25(4):291-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1998.tb02443.x.

  65. Slot DE, Wiggelinkhuizen L, Rosema NA, Van der Weijden GA. The efficacy of manual toothbrushes following a brushing exercise: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2012 Aug;10(3):187-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2012.00557.x. Epub 2012 Jun 6.

  66. Creeth JE, Gallagher A, Sowinski J, Bowman J, Barrett K, Lowe S, Patel K, Bosma ML. The effect of brushing time and dentifrice on dental plaque removal in vivo. J Dent Hyg. 2009 Summer;83(3):111-6. Epub 2009 Aug 14.

  67. Saxer UP, Barbakow J, Yankell SL. New studies on estimated and actual toothbrushing times and dentifrice use. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(2):49-51.

  68. Dentino AR, Derderian G, Wolf M, et al. Six-month comparison of powered versus manual toothbrushing for safety and efficacy in the absence of professional instruction in mechanical plaque control. J Periodontol. 2002 Jul;73(7):770-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2002.73.7.770.

  69. Beals D, Ngo T, Feng Y, Cook D, Grau DG, Weber DA. Development and laboratory evaluation of a new toothbrush with a novel brush head design. Am J Dent. 2000 Mar;13(Spec No):5A-14A.

  70. Poyato-Ferrera M, Segura-Egea JJ, Bullón-Fernández P. Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal. Int J Dent Hyg. 2003 May;1(2):110-4. doi: 10.1034/j.1601-5037.2003.00018.x.

  71. Trombelli L, Farina R. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis. Minerva Stomatol. 2013 Jun;62(6):207-34.

  72. Cekici A, Kantarci A, Hasturk H, Van Dyke TE. Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2014 Feb;64(1):57-80. doi: 10.1111/prd.12002.

  73. Scheie AA. Models of action of currently known chemical antiplaque agents other than chlorhexidine. J Dent Res 1989;68:1609-1616.

  74. Versaci MB. Study finds association between triclosan, osteoporosis. ADA News. 2019 Jun 28. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  75. Paraskevas S, van der Weijden GA. A review of the effects of stannous fluoride on gingivitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2006 Jan;33(1):1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00860.x.

  76. Gunsolley JC. A meta-analysis of six-month studies of antiplaque and antigingivitis agents. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Dec;137(12):1649-57. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0110.

  77. Sälzer S, Slot DE, Dörfer CE, Van der Weijden GA. Comparison of triclosan and stannous fluoride dentifrices on parameters of gingival inflammation and plaque scores: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2015 Feb;13(1):1-17. doi: 10.1111/idh.12072. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

  78. Ramji N, Baig A, He T, Lawless MA, Saletta L, Suszcynsky-Meister E, Coggan J. Sustained antibacterial actions of a new stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice containing sodium hexametaphosphate. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 1):19-28.

  79. Otten MP, Busscher HJ, Abbas F, van der Mei HC, van Hoogmoed CG. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients. Clin Oral Investig. 2012 Oct;16(5):1435-42. doi: 10.1007/s00784-011-0648-2. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

  80. Klukowska M, Haught JC, Xie S, Circello B, Tansky CS, Khambe D, Huggins T, White DJ. Clinical Effects of Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice in Reducing Plaque Microbial Virulence I: Microbiological and Receptor Cell Findings. J Clin Dent. 2017 Jun;28(2):16-26.

  81. Haught C, Xie S, Circello B, Tansky CS, Khambe D, Klukowska M, Huggins T, White DJ. Lipopolysaccharide and Lipoteichoic Acid Virulence Deactivation by Stannous Fluoride. J Clin Dent. 2016 Sep;27(3):84-89.

  82. White DJ. Advantages of Using Anti-Microbial Toothpastes: New Understandings Regarding Their Effects on Dental Plaque Virulence in Gum Disease. Catapult Education. 2017 Sep 14 Accessed December 8, 2020.

  83. Haught JC, Xie S, Circello B, et al. Lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid binding by antimicrobials used in oral care formulations. Am J Dent. 2016 Dec;29(6):328-332.

  84. Huggins T, Haught JC, Xie S, Tansky CS, Klukowska M, Miner MC, White DJ. Quantitation of endotoxin and lipoteichoic acid virulence using toll receptor reporter gene. Am J Dent. 2016 Dec;29(6):321-327.

  85. Klukowska M, Goyal CR, Khambe D, et al. Response of chronic gingivitis to hygiene therapy and experimental gingivitis. Clinical, microbiological and metabonomic changes. Am J Dent. 2015 Oct;28(5):273-84.

  86. Klukowska MA, Goyal C, Qaqish JG, et al. The effect of SnF2 dentifrice on virulence of subgingival plaque. J Dent Res 2018;97(Spec Iss A):Abstract 755. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  87. Cannon M, Khambe D, Klukowska M, Ramsey DL, Miner M, Huggins T, White DJ. Clinical Effects of Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice in Reducing Plaque Microbial Virulence II: Metabonomic Changes. J Clin Dent. 2018 Mar;29(1):1-12.

  88. Klukowska MA, Ramji N, Combs C, et al. Subgingival uptake and retention of stannous fluoride from dentifrice: Gingival crevicular fluid concentrations in sulci post-brushing. Am J Dent. 2018 Aug;31(4):184-188.

  89. Tinanoff N. Progress regarding the use of stannous fluoride in clinical dentistry. J Clin Dent. 1995;6 Spec No:37-40.

  90. He T, Farrell S. The Case for Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice: An Advanced Formulation Designed for Patient Preference. J Clin Dent. 2017 Dec;28(4 Spec No B):B1-5.

  91. Baig A, He T. A novel dentifrice technology for advanced oral health protection: A review of technical and clinical data. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 1):4-11.

  92. Myers CP, Pappas I, Makwana E, et al. Solving the problem with stannous fluoride: Formulation, stabilization, and antimicrobial action. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Apr;150(4S):S5-S13. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.01.004.

  93. Bustamante C. The resurrection of Parodontax: GSK’s active ingredient is clever marketing. DentistryiQ. 2017 Aug 23. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  94. He T, Nachnani S, Lee S, et al. The relative clinical efficacy of three 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrices for the treatment of gingivitis over 3 months. Am J Dent. 2020 Aug;33(4):218-224.

  95. When it comes to stannous fluoride, formulation matters. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  96. Biesbrock A, He T, DiGennaro J, et al The effects of bioavailable gluconate chelated stannous fluoride dentifrice on gingival bleeding: Meta-analysis of eighteen randomized controlled trials. J Clin Periodontol. 2019 Dec;46(12):1205-1216. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.13203.

  97. Klukowska M, Anastasia MK, Conde E, etal. Evaluation of a novel stannous fluoride dentifrice stabilized with amino acid glycine: Effects on plaque regrowth and tin retention in gingival crevicular fluide. 2020. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  98. Colgate. Frequently Asked Questions: Colgate Total. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  99. Hu D, Li X, Liu H, et al. Evaluation of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on dental plaque and gingivitis in a randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Apr;150(4S):S32-S37. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.01.005. Erratum in: J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Apr;150(4):245.

  100. Seriwatanachai D, Triratana T, Kraivaphan P, et al. Effect of stannous fluoride and zinc phosphate dentifrice on dental plaque and gingivitis: A randomized clinical trial with 6-month follow-up. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Apr;150(4S):S25-S31. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.01.003.

  101. GSK Health Partner. Parodontax Tootpaste: Overview. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  102. Parkinson C, Amini P, Wu J, Gallob J. A 24-week randomized clinical study investigating the anti-gingivitis efficacy of a 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice. Am J Dent. 2018 Feb;31(1):17-23.

  103. Parkinson CR, Milleman KR, Milleman JL. Gingivitis efficacy of a 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice: a 24-week randomized controlled trial. BMC Oral Health. 2020 Mar 26;20(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01079-6.

  104. Canadian Advisory Board on Dentin Hypersensitivity. Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity. J Can Dent Assoc. 2003 Apr;69(4):221-6.

  105. Bartold PM. Dentinal hypersensitivity: a review. Aust Dent J. 2006 Sep;51(3):212-8; quiz 276.

  106. Chabanski MB, Gillam DG, Bulman JS, Newman HN. Clinical evaluation of cervical dentine sensitivity in a population of patients referred to a specialist periodontology department: a pilot study. J Oral Rehabil. 1997 Sep;24(9):666-72. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2842.1997.00552.x.

  107. Orchardson R, Gillam DG. Managing dentin hypersensitivity. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Jul;137(7):990-8; quiz 1028-9. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.2006.0321.

  108. Levenson D. Beneficial effects seen with most desensitising toothpastes. Evid Based Dent. 2016 Mar;17(1):10-1. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6401147.

  109. Hu ML, Zheng G, Zhang YD, Yan X, Li XC, Lin H. Effect of desensitizing toothpastes on dentine hypersensitivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent. 2018 Aug;75:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.05.012. Epub 2018 May 19.

  110. Martins CC, Firmino RT, Riva JJ, Ge L, Carrasco-Labra A, Brignardello-Petersen R, Colunga-Lozano LE, Granville-Garcia AF, Costa FO, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Zhang Y, Schünemann HJ. Desensitizing Toothpastes for Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Network Meta-analysis. J Dent Res. 2020 May;99(5):514-522. doi: 10.1177/0022034520903036. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

  111. Bae JH, Kim YK, Myung SK. Desensitizing toothpaste versus placebo for dentin hypersensitivity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Feb;42(2):131-41. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12347. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

  112. Mahoney EK, Kilpatrick NM. Dental erosion: part 1. Aetiology and prevalence of dental erosion. N Z Dent J. 2003 Jun;99(2):33-41.

  113. Jaeggi T, LussiA. Prevalence, incidence and distribution of erosion. In: Erosive Tooth Wear: From Diagnosis to Therapy. Lussi A, Ganss C(Eds.). New York, NY. Karger; 2014:55-73.

  114. O'Toole S, Bartlett D. The relationship between dentine hypersensitivity, dietary acid intake and erosive tooth wear. J Dent. 2017 Dec;67:84-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.10.002. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

  115. Lussi A, Jaeggi T. Erosion--diagnosis and risk factors. Clin Oral Investig. 2008 Mar;12 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S5-13. doi: 10.1007/s00784-007-0179-z. Epub 2008 Jan 29.

  116. von Fraunhofer JA, Rogers MM. Effects of sports drinks and other beverages on dental enamel. Gen Dent. 2005 Jan-Feb;53(1):28-31.

  117. Johansson AK, Omar R, Carlsson GE, Johansson A. Dental erosion and its growing importance in clinical practice: from past to present. Int J Dent. 2012;2012:632907. doi: 10.1155/2012/632907. Epub 2012 Mar 7.

  118. Faller RV, Eversole SL. Ability of fluoride compounds to deposit a protective barrier layer onto enamel. Caries Res. 2009;43:224.

  119. West NX, Hellin N, Eusebio R, He T. The erosion protection efficacy of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice: An in situ randomized clinical trial. Am J Dent. 2019 Jun;32(3):138-142.

  120. West NX, He T, Hellin N, Claydon N, Seong J, Macdonald E, Farrell S, Eusebio R, Wilberg A. Randomized in situ clinical trial evaluating erosion protection efficacy of a 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice. Int J Dent Hyg. 2019 Aug;17(3):261-267. doi: 10.1111/idh.12379. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

  121. McFall WT Jr, Bader JD, Rozier RG, Ramsey D, Graves R, Sams D, Sloame B. Clinical periodontal status of regularly attending patients in general dental practices. J Periodontol. 1989 Mar;60(3):145-50. doi: 10.1902/jop.1989.60.3.145.

  122. Mandel ID. Calculus update: prevalence, pathogenicity and prevention. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995 May;126(5):573-80. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1995.0235.

  123. White DJ. Dental calculus: recent insights into occurrence, formation, prevention, removal and oral health effects of supragingival and subgingival deposits. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Oct;105(5 Pt 2):508-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.1997.tb00238.x.

  124. Mandel ID. Calculus formation and prevention: an overview. Compend Suppl. 1987;(8):S235-41.

  125. He T, Anastasia MK, Zsiska M, Farmer T, Schneiderman E, Milleman JL. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of the Anticalculus Effect of a Novel Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice. J Clin Dent. 2017 Dec;28(4):B21-26.

  126. Fairbrother KJ, Heasman PA. Anticalculus agents. J Clin Periodontol. 2000 May;27(5):285-301. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027005285.x.

  127. Winston JL, Fiedler SK, Schiff T, Baker R. An anticalculus dentifrice with sodium hexametaphosphate and stannous fluoride: a six-month study of efficacy. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2007 Jul 1;8(5):1-8.

  128. White DJ, Gerlach RW. Anticalculus effects of a novel, dual-phase polypyrophosphate dentifrice: chemical basis, mechanism, and clinical response. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2000 Nov 15;1(4):1-19.

  129. Spielman AI, Bivona P, Rifkin BR. Halitosis. A common oral problem. N Y State Dent J. 1996 Dec;62(10):36-42.

  130. Loesche WJ, Kazor C. Microbiology and treatment of halitosis. Periodontol 2000. 2002;28:256-79. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0757.2002.280111.x.

  131. Van der Sleen MI, Slot DE, Van Trijffel E, Winkel EG, Van der Weijden GA. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating: a systematic review. Int J Dent Hyg. 2010 Nov;8(4):258-68. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-5037.2010.00479.x. Epub 2010 Sep 6.

  132. Cheng R. Breath and plaque prevention with cetylpyridinium chloride rinses: clinical meta-analysis. J Dent Res (AADR/IADR)2014;93 (Spec Iss A): Abstract 573. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  133. Farrell S, Barker ML, Gerlach RW. Overnight malodor effect with a 0.454% stabilized stannous fluoride sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2007 Dec;28(12):658-61; quiz 662, 671.

  134. Chen X, He T, Sun L, Zhang Y, Feng X. A randomized cross-over clinical trial to evaluate the effect of a 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice on the reduction of oral malodor. Am J Dent. 2010 Jun;23(3):175-8.

  135. Gerlach RW, Sagel PA. Initial evidence of two-step dentifrice/gel sequence effects on health: Outcomes from three randomized controlled trials. Am J Dent. 2018 Jul;31(Sp Is A):7A-12A.

  136. Algarni AA, Ungar PS, Lippert F, Martínez-Mier EA, Eckert GJ, González-Cabezas C, Hara AT. Trend-analysis of dental hard-tissue conditions as function of tooth age. J Dent. 2018 Jul;74:107-112. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2018.05.011. Epub 2018 May 22.

  137. Watts A, Addy M. Tooth discolouration and staining: a review of the literature. Br Dent J. 2001 Mar 24;190(6):309-16. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4800959.

  138. Hattab FN, Qudeimat MA, al-Rimawi HS. Dental discoloration: an overview. J Esthet Dent. 1999;11(6):291-310. doi: 10.1111/j.1708-8240.1999.tb00413.x.

  139. St John S, White DJ. History of the Development of Abrasivity Limits for Dentifrices. J Clin Dent. 2015;26(2):50-4.

  140. Goldstein RE, Garber DA. Complete Dental Bleaching. Chicago, IL. Quintessence Publishing Co.; 1995.

  141. Beauty Packaging. Colgate Optic White Awarded the ADA Seal of Approval. 2019 Jan 09. Accessed December 8, 2020.

  142. Sagel PA, Gerlach RW. Clinical evidence on a unique two-step stannous fluoride dentifrice and whitening gel sequence. Am J Dent. 2018 Jul;31(Sp Is A):4A-6A.

  143. Baig A, He T, Buisson J, Sagel L, Suszcynsky-Meister E, White DJ. Extrinsic whitening effects of sodium hexametaphosphate--a review including a dentifrice with stabilized stannous fluoride. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2005 Sep;26(9 Suppl 1):47-53.

  144. Vaz VTP, Jubilato DP, Oliveira MRM, Bortolatto JF, Floros MC, Dantas AAR, Oliveira Junior OB. Whitening toothpaste containing activated charcoal, blue covarine, hydrogen peroxide or microbeads: which one is the most effective? J Appl Oral Sci. 2019 Jan 14;27:e20180051. doi: 10.1590/1678-7757-2018-0051.

  145. Brooks JK, Bashirelahi N, Reynolds MA. Charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices: A literature review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017 Sep;148(9):661-670. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2017.05.001. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available