apnea – A cessation of breathing attributed to complete airway obstruction during sleep. Specifically, ≥ 90% reduction in airflow for ≥ 10 seconds.
apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) – the combined number of apneic or hypopneic events recorded per hour of sleep during a sleep study.
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) – a bedside device that delivers room air to treat a patient with obstructive sleep apnea via a hose-mask assembly to the patient’s nose, mouth or both. The stream of air is continuous. This term is often used interchangeably and loosely with PAP (see below).
home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) – a sleep study via a device worn in the patient’s own home bedroom.
hypopnea – Involves episodes of labored breathing or a low respiratory rate that does not meet metabolic needs and is attributed to partial obstruction of the airway. Defined as ≥ 30% decrease in airflow for < 10 seconds. Must include a decrease in respiratory effort and at least one of the following: a reduction in oxygen saturation by 3-4% or an arousal.
mandibular advancement device (MAD) – also known as a mandibular advancement splint (MAS), mandibular repositioning device (MRD), oral appliance (OA).
obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) – A result of recurrent episodes of complete or partial blockage of the upper airway despite respiratory effort.
polysomnograph (PSG) – an overnight sleep study, customarily refers to one at a sleep laboratory facility. Also referred to as a polysomnogram.
positive airway pressure (PAP) – a bedside device that delivers room air to treat a patient with obstructive sleep apnea via a hose-mask assembly to the patient’s nose, mouth or both. PAP devices can deliver air in a continuous manner or in an adjustable manner dependent on patient’s inhalation/exhalation pattern, e.g. bilevel and adaptive-servo ventilation (ASV).