The normal radiographic appearance of the teeth and their supporting structures throughout the various stages of tooth development, eruption, and maturation are important to recognize and understand. This foundational knowledge provides a sound baseline to assist the clinician in identifying and describing deviations from normal. Dental anomalies associated with the eruption, number, size, and shape of the teeth include a variety of entities, some which may have important treatment considerations and implications. Acquired alterations of tooth structure such as attrition, abrasion, abfraction, and erosion may affect the appearance or function of the teeth. In some cases, clinical intervention will be required to preserve the remaining tooth structure and maintain normal function. This information will facilitate differentiation between normal and abnormal tooth structure and enhance the ability to recognize and describe various structural anomalies.