National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) in Children Age 2 to 11. Dental Caries in Primary (Baby) Teeth. Accessed January 12, 2021.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Fleming E, Afful J. Prevalence of Total and Untreated Dental Caries Among Youth: United States, 2015-2016. NCHS Data Brief. 2018 Apr;(307):1-8..
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay) in Adults (Age 20 to 64). Dental Caries in Permanent (Adult) Teeth. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Ettinger RL. Epidemiology of dental caries. A broad review. Dent Clin North Am. 1999 Oct;43(4):679-94, vii.
Radike AW. Criteria for diagnosing dental caries. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Clinical Testing of Cariostatic Agents. Chicago, IL. American Dental Association,1968:87-88.
Pitts NB, Fejerskov O, von der Fehr FR. Caries Epidemiology, with special emphasis on diagnostics standards. In: Dental Caries: The Disease and its Clinical Management. Fejerskov O, Kidd EAM. eds. Blackswell Munksgaard Ames, IA. 2003:141-163.
Faller R, Bloch-Zupan A. Brushing, toothpastes, salivation, and remineralization. In: Understanding Dental Caries – From Pathogenesis to Prevention and Therapy. Goldberg M, ed. Springer, Switzerland. 2016:187-198.
Ettinger R, Qian F, Warren JJ, Asmussen C. Incidence of Caries in an Overdenture Population. Abstract #0338. IADR/AADR San Diego, CA. March 7, 2002.
NIH Consensus Statement - Diagnosis and Management of Dental Caries Throughout Life. National Institutes of Health 2001;18(1). Accessed January 12, 2021.
Zero DT. Dentifrices, mouthwashes, and remineralization/caries arrestment strategies. BMC Oral Health. 2006 Jun 15;6 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S9. doi: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-S1-S9.
Walsh LJ. Clinical applications of Recaldent products; which ones to use where. RDH 2011, 29(3). Accessed January 12, 2021.
Dawes C. What is the critical pH and why does a tooth dissolve in acid? J Can Dent Assoc. 2003 Dec;69(11):722-4.
Larsen MJ, Pearce EI. A computer program for correlating dental plaque pH values, cH+, plaque titration, critical pH, resting pH and the solubility of enamel apatite. Arch Oral Biol. 1997 Jul;42(7):475-80.
Kidd EA, Fejerskov O. What constitutes dental caries? Histopathology of carious enamel and dentin related to the action of cariogenic biofilms. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C35-8.
Yanagisawa T, Miake Y. High-resolution electron microscopy of enamel-crystal demineralization and remineralization in carious lesions. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2003;52(6):605-13.
Larsen MJ, Bruun C. Caries Chemistry and Fluoride – Mechanisms of Action. In: Textbook of Clinical Cariology. 2nd Ed. Thystrup, A. and Fejerskov, O. Munksgaard, Copenhagen 1996:231-257.
Backer-Dirks O. Posteruptive changes in dental enamel. J Dent Res. 1966 May-Jun;45(3):503-11. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Jensen ME, Donly K, Wefel JS. Assessment of the effect of selected snack foods on the remineralization/demineralization of enamel and dentin. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2000 Aug 15;1(3):1-17.
Duggal MS, Toumba KJ, Amaechi BT, et. al. Enamel demineralization in situ with various frequencies of carbohydrate consumption with and without fluoride toothpaste. J Dent Res. 2001 Aug;80(8):1721-4.
Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz C. Biological factors in dental caries: role of saliva and dental plaque in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 1). J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2003 Fall;28(1):47-52.
Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz C. Biological factors in dental caries enamel structure and the caries process in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 2). J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2004 Winter;28(2):119-24.
Hicks J, Garcia-Godoy F, Flaitz C. Biological factors in dental caries: role of remineralization and fluoride in the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization (part 3). J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2004 Spring;28(3):203-14.
Leake JL. Clinical decision-making for caries management in root surfaces. J Dent Educ. 2001 Oct;65(10):1147-53.
Gluzman R, Katz RV, Frey BJ, et al. Prevention of root caries: a literature review of primary and secondary preventive agents. Spec Care Dentist. 2013 May-Jun;33(3):133-40. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-4505.2012.00318.x. Epub 2012 Dec 10.
Parks ET, Williamson GF. Digital radiography: an overview. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2002 Nov 15;3(4):23-39.
Svanaes DB, Moystad A, Larheim TA. Approximal caries depth assessment with storage phosphor versus film radiography. Evaluation of the caries-specific Oslo enhancement procedure. Caries Res. 2000 Nov-Dec;34(6):448-53.
Jacobsen JH, Hansen B, Wenzel A, et. al. Relationship between histological and radiographic caries lesion depth measured in images from four digital radiography systems. Caries Res. 2004 Jan-eb;38(1):34-8.
Pretty IA, Maupome G. A closer look at diagnosis in clinical dental practice: part 5. Emerging technologies for caries detection and diagnosis. J Can Dent Assoc. 2004 Sep;70(8):540, 540a-540i.
Kositbowornchai S, Sukanya C, Tidarat T, et al. Caries detection under composite restorations by laser fluorescence and digital radiography. Clin Oral Investig. 2013 Dec;17(9):2079-84. doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0908-9. Epub 2012 Dec 16.
Sichani AV, Javadinejad S, Ghafari R. Diagnostic value of DIAGNOdent in detecting caries under composite restorations of primary molars. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2016 Jul-Aug;13(4):327-32.
Schneiderman A, Elbaum M, Shultz T, et. al. Assessment of dental caries with Digital Imaging Fiber-Optic TransIllumination (DIFOTI): in vitro study. Caries Res. 1997;31(2):103-10.
Keem S, Elbaum M. Wavelet representations for monitoring changes in teeth imaged with digital imaging fiber-optic transillumination. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 1997 Oct;16(5):653-63.
Young DA. New caries detection technologies and modern caries management: merging the strategies. Gen Dent. 2002 Jul-Aug;50(4):320-31.
Abdelaziz M, Krejci I. DIAGNOcam--a Near Infrared Digital Imaging Transillumination (NIDIT) technology. Int J Esthet Dent. 2015 Spring;10(1):158-65.
Angmar-Mànsson B, al-Khateeb S, Tranaeus S. Monitoring the caries process. Optical methods for clinical diagnosis and quantification of enamel caries. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996 Aug;104(4 ( Pt 2)):480-5.
van der Veen MH, de Josselin de Jong E. Application of quantitative light-induced fluorescence for assessing early caries lesions. Monogr Oral Sci. 2000;17:144-62.
Amaechi BT, Higham SM. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence: a potential tool for general dental assessment. J Biomed Opt. 2002 Jan;7(1):7-13.
Gonzalez-Cabezas C, Fontana M, Gomes-Moosbauer D, et. al. Early detection of secondary caries using quantitative, light-induced fluorescence. Oper Dent. 2003 Jul-Aug;28(4):415-22.
Durmusoglu O, Tağtekin DA, Yanikoğlu F. Clinical evaluation of demineralization and remineralization of intact root surface lesions in the clinic by a quantitative light-induced fluorescence system. Lasers Med Sci. 2012 Mar;27(2):397-402. doi: 10.1007/s10103-011-0899-9. Epub 2011 Mar 22.
Lee ES, Kang SM, Ko HY, et al. Association between the cariogenicity of a dental microcosm biofilm and its red fluorescence detected by Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital (QLF-D). J Dent. 2013 Dec;41(12):1264-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.021. Epub 2013 Sep 3.
Petersson LG, Kambara M. Remineralization study of artificial root caries lesions after fluoride treatment. An in vitro study using electric caries monitor and transversal micro-radiography. Gerodontology. 2004 Jun;21(2):85-92.
Lussi A, Hibst R, Paulus R. DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C80-83.
Twetman S, Axelsson S, Dahlén G, et al. Adjunct methods for caries detection: a systematic review of literature. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013 May-Jul;71(3-4):388-97. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2012.690448. Epub 2012 May 28.
Huysmans MC, Longbottom C. The challenges of validating diagnostic methods and selecting appropriate gold standards. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C48-52.
Ekstrand KR. Improving clinical visual detection--potential for caries clinical trials. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C67-71.
Imrey PB, Kingman A. Analysis of clinical trials involving non-cavitated caries lesions. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C103-8.
American Dental Association (ADA). Policy on Evidence-Based Dentistry. Accessed January 12, 2021.
Forrest JL, Miller SA. Evidence-based decision making in action: Part 2--evaluating and applying the clinical evidence. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003 Feb 15;4(1):42-52.
Ismail AI, Bader JD. ADA Council on Scientific Affairs and Division of Science, et al. Evidence-based dentistry in clinical practice. J Am Dent Assoc. 2004 Jan;135(1):78-83.
Jeyanthi J. Sources of evidence: useful databases. Evidence-Based Dentistry 2004 5, 24-27; doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400232.
Walsh T, Worthington HV, Glenny AM, Appelbe P, Marinho VC, Shi X. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007868. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007868.pub2. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 04;3:CD007868.
Stookey GK, Mau MS, Isaacs RL, et al. The relative anticaries effectiveness of three fluoride-containing dentifrices in Puerto Rico. Caries Res. 2004 Nov-Dec;38(6):542-50.
Benson PE, Parkin N, Millett DT, et al. Fluorides for the prevention of white spots on teeth during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD003809.
Benson PE, Parkin N, Dyer F, Millett DT, Furness S, Germain P. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Dec 12;(12):CD003809. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD003809.pub3. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Nov 17;2019(11).
Marinho VC, Worthington HV, Walsh T, Chong LY. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 15;2015(6):CD002280. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002280.pub2.
Marinho VC, Chong LY, Worthington HV, et al. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 29;7:CD002284. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002284.pub2.
Anderson MH, Bales DJ, Omnell KA. Modern management of dental caries: the cutting edge is not the dental bur. J Am Dent Assoc. 1993 Jun;124(6):36-44.
Barber LR, Wilkins EM. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries. J Dent Hyg. 2002 Fall;76(4):270-5.
Steinberg S. A paradigm shift in the treatment of caries. Gen Dent 2002 Jul-Aug;50(4):333-8.
Ten Cate JM. Fluorides in caries prevention and control: empiricism or science. Caries Res. 2004 May-Jun;38(3):254-7.
Ismail AI, Tellez M, Pitts NB, et al. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013; 41; e12-e40.
Bawden JW. Changing Patterns of Fluoride Intake: Workshop held at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, April 23-25, 1991. J Dent Res, 71(5):1218, 1992.
Eldredge JB, Levy SM. The dental hygienist's role in dietary fluoride supplements. J. Dent Hyg, Sept., 1988.
Ettinger RL, Jakobsen J. Caries: A problem in an overdenture population. Community Dent, 18:42, 1990.
Heifetz SB, Horowitz HS. Fluorides: The amounts of fluoride in current therapies: safety considerations for children. J Dent Child, July/August, 1984.
Jensen ME, Kohout F. The effect of a fluoridated dentifrice on root and coronal caries in an older adult population. J Am Dent Assoc, 117:829, 1988.
Levy SM. Expansion of the proper use of systemic fluoride supplements. J Am Dent Assoc, 112:30, 1986.
McCormack KR, McDermott RJ. The caries status of youth: Implications for dental hygienists. J Dent Hyg, Sept., 1988. National Institute of Dental Research: National Caries Program. The Prevalence of Dental Caries in United States Children. NIH Publ. No. 82-2245. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, December, 1981.
Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000.
Szpunar SM, Burt BA. Trends in the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States: A review. J Pub Hlth, 47(2):71, 1987. Stookey G. Understanding the caries process: First of a series. Dental Hygienist News, 1(2):2, 1988.
Stookey G. Understanding the caries process: Second in a series. Dental Hygienist News, 1(2):8, 1988.
Tobin EA. Dental fluorosis in children in the 1980's: A review of the literature. J Dent Hyg, September, 1988.
Woolfolk MW, Faja BW, Bagramian RA. Relation of sources of systemic fluoride to prevalence of dental fluorosis. J Pub Hlth, 49(2):78, 1989.