dysbiosis – “Dysbiosis is any perturbation of the normal microbiome content that could disrupt the symbiotic relationship between the host and associated microbes, a disruption that could result in diseases.“7
grading of periodontitis – “Allows for rate of progression to be considered based on availability of direct or indirect evidence of periodontal disease progression (e.g., radiographs) and then modified by the presence of risk factors.“12
Human Microbiome Project – A project of the US NIH that began in 2007 and is still ongoing that has become an international initiative to better understand the extent of the human microbiome and its significance in health and disease.
metagenomics – The study of the structure and function of nucleotide sequences isolated directly from an environmental sample, especially of a community of microorganisms.
microbiomics – The scientific study of the microbiome.
peri-implant mucositis – “The main characteristic of peri-implant mucositis is bleeding on gentle probing. An increase in probing depth is often observed due to swelling or decrease in probing resistance. There is strong evidence that plaque is the etiological factor.“11
peri-implantitis – “A plaque-associated pathological condition occurring in tissues around dental implants, characterized by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone.“11
periodontal health – “A state free from inflammatory periodontal disease that allows an individual to function normally and avoid consequences (mental and physical) due to current or past disease.“10
precision medicine – “Focuses on identifying which treatment approaches will be the most effective for which patients based on genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.“9
staging of periodontitis – “Relies on the standard dimensions of severity and extent of periodontitis at presentation but introduces the dimension of complexity of managing the individual patient.“12
symbiosis – “Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both.“8
World Health Organization Definition of Health – “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.“6