To reduce the risk of disease progression and to prevent the transmission of the virus to others, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients with HIV infection. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 8 mechanistic classes of drugs to manage HIV infection and numerous combination formulations (Tables 4 and 5).25,26 Recommended regimens are those with durable virologic efficacy, favorable tolerability and toxicity profiles, and ease of use (combination formulations).
Table 4. Drugs for Antiretroviral Therapy (ART).25,26
Mechanisms of Action
Blocks CCR5, one of the two major co-receptors used by HIV-1 to attach to host cells
An anti-HIV peptide structurally similar to a segment of the HIV protein (gp‑41) – blocks membrane fusion
Mimic deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, the natural substrate for reverse transcriptase – they become incorporated into the growing DNA chain, terminate elongation and decrease or prevent HIV replication