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HIV: Infection Control/Exposure Control Issues for Oral Healthcare Personnel

Course Number: 97

References / Additional Resources

  1. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). HIV. Basic Statistics. July 1, 2020. Accessed September 9, 2020.

  2. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Pneumocystis pneumonia--Los Angeles. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1981 Jun 5;30(21):250-2.

  3. Worobey M, Gemmel M, Teuwen DE, et al. Direct evidence of extensive diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960. Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07390.

  4. Steinbrook R. The AIDS epidemic in 2004. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jul 8;351(2):115-7. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp048156.

  5. Landovitz RJ, Currier JS. Clinical practice. Postexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 2009 Oct 29;361(18):1768-75. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp0904189.

  6. Westby M, Lewis M, Whitcomb J, et al. Emergence of CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in a minority of HIV-1-infected patients following treatment with the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc is from a pretreatment CXCR4-using virus reservoir. J Virol. 2006 May;80(10):4909-20. doi: 10.1128/JVI.80.10.4909-4920.2006.

  7. Pantaleo G, Fauci AS. New concepts in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. Annu Rev Immunol. 1995;13:487-512. doi: 10.1146/annurev.iy.13.040195.002415.

  8. Kinloch-De Loës S, Hirschel BJ, Hoen B, et al. A controlled trial of zidovudine in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 17;333(7):408-13. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199508173330702.

  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2014 Apr 11;63(RR-03):1-10.

  10. Classification and diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV infection. EC-Clearinghouse on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection and WHO Collaborating Centre on Oral Manifestations of the Immunodeficiency Virus.J Oral Pathol Med. 1993 Aug;22(7):289-91.

  11. Ramírez-Amador V, Ponce-De-León S, Sierra-Madero J, et al. Synchronous kinetics of CD4+ lymphocytes and viral load before the onset of oral candidosis and hairy leukoplakia in a cohort of Mexican HIV-infected patients. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Dec;21(12):981-90. doi: 10.1089/aid.2005.21.981.

  12. Vaseliu N, Carter AB, Kline NE, et al. Longitudinal study of the prevalence and prognostic implications of oral manifestations in romanian children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Dec;24(12):1067-71.

  13. Baccaglini L, Atkinson JC, Patton LL, et al. Management of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2007 Mar;103 Suppl:S50.e1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2006.11.002.

  14. Kademani D, Glick M. Oral ulcerations in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus: clinical presentations, diagnosis, management, and relevance to disease progression. Quintessence Int. 1998 Aug;29(8):523-34.

  15. Rohrmus B, Thoma-Greber EM, Bogner JR, et al. Outlook in oral and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet. 2000 Dec 23-30;356(9248):2160. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03503-0.

  16. Bhayat A, Yengopal V, Rudolph M. Predictive value of group I oral lesions for HIV infection. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 May;109(5):720-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.11.019. Epub 2010 Mar 29.

  17. Thompson GR 3rd, Patel PK, Kirkpatrick WR, et al. Oropharyngeal candidiasis in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010 Apr;109(4):488-95. doi: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.11.026. Epub 2010 Feb 13.

  18. Shugars DC, Slade GD, Patton LL, et al. Oral and systemic factors associated with increased levels of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in saliva. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Apr;89(4):432-40.

  19. Miziara ID, Filho BC, Weber R. Oral lesions in Brazilian HIV-infected children undergoing HAART. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006 Jun;70(6):1089-96. Epub 2006 Jan 6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2005.11.010.

  20. Patton LL, Phelan JA, Ramos-Gomez FJ, et al. Prevalence and classification of HIV-associated oral lesions. Oral Dis. 2002;8 Suppl 2:98-109.

  21. Lawn SD, Checkley A, Wansbrough-Jones MH. Acute bilateral parotitis caused by Mycobacterium scrofulaceum: immune reconstitution disease in a patient with AIDS. Sex Transm Infect. 2005 Dec;81(6):517-8. doi: 10.1136/sti.2005.014993.

  22. Lipman M, Breen R. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2006 Feb;19(1):20-5.

  23. Reznik DA. Oral manifestations of HIV disease. Top HIV Med. 2005 Dec-2006 Jan;13(5):143-8.

  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Association of Public Health Laboratories. Laboratory Testing for the Diagnosis of HIV Infection: Updated Recommendations. Published June 27, 2014. Accessed September 9, 2020.

  25. Abramowicz M (ed). Drugs for HIV Infection. Treatment Guidelines from The Medical Letter. 2014;12(138):7-16.

  26. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. AIDs Info. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines. July 22, 2020. Accessed September 9, 2020.

  27. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, et al. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Health Care Settings. Am J Infect Control. 2007 Dec;35(10 Suppl 2):S65-164. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2007.10.007.

  28. Do AN, Ciesielski CA, Metler RP, et al. Occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: national case surveillance data during 20 years of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003 Feb;24(2):86-96. doi: 10.1086/502178.

  29. Cardo DM, Culver DH, Ciesielski CA, et al. A case-control study of HIV seroconversion in health care workers after percutaneous exposure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Needlestick Surveillance Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Nov 20;337(21):1485-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199711203372101.

  30. Kuhar DT, Henderson DK, Struble KA, et al. Updated US Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013 Sep;34(9):875-92. doi: 10.1086/672271.

  31. Bell DM. Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview. Am J Med. 1997 May 19;102(5B):9-15.

  32. Henderson DK, Fahey BJ, Willy M, et al. Risk for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) associated with clinical exposures. A prospective evaluation. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Nov 15;113(10):740-6.

  33. Ippolito G, Puro V, De Carli G. The risk of occupational human immunodeficiency virus infection in health care workers. Italian Multicenter Study. The Italian Study Group on Occupational Risk of HIV infection. Arch Intern Med. 1993 Jun 28;153(12):1451-8.

  34. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Update: human immunodeficiency virus infections in health-care workers exposed to blood of infected patients. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1987 May 22;36(19):285-9.

  35. Fahey BJ, Koziol DE, Banks SM, et al. Frequency of nonparenteral occupational exposures to blood and body fluids before and after universal precautions training. Am J Med. 1991 Feb;90(2):145-53.

  36. Henderson DK, Dembry L, Fishman NO, et al. SHEA guideline for management of healthcare workers who are infected with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and/or human immunodeficiency virus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Mar;31(3):203-32. doi: 10.1086/650298.

  37. Crossley ML. An investigation of dentists' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV+ and patients with other blood-borne viruses in South Cheshire, UK. Br Dent J. 2004 Jun 26;196(12):749-54, quiz 780. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811382.

  38. Shirlaw PJ, Chikte U, MacPhail L, et al. Oral and dental care and treatment protocols for the management of HIV-infected patients. Oral Dis. 2002;8 Suppl 2:136-43.

  39. Kohn WG, Collins AS, Cleveland JL, et al. Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings--2003. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Dec 19;52(RR-17):1-61.

  40. DePaola LG. Managing the care of patients infected with bloodborne diseases. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Mar;134(3):350-8.

  41. Campo-Trapero J, Cano-Sánchez J, del Romero-Guerrero J, et al. Dental management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Quintessence Int. 2003 Jul-Aug;34(7):515-25.

  42. Reitsma AM, Closen ML, Cunningham M, et al. Infected physicians and invasive procedures: safe practice management. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jun 1;40(11):1665-72. Epub 2005 May 2. doi: 10.1086/429821.

Additional Resources

No Additional Resources Available