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HIV: Infection Control/Exposure Control Issues for Oral Healthcare Personnel

Course Number: 97


Laboratory criteria for defining a confirmed case now accommodate new multi-test algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection (Figure 1). In 2023, the CDC updated its recommendations for HIV testing to provide guidance on the use of HIV NATs (nucleic acid tests) with a diagnostic claim in the third step of the current recommended algorithm for laboratory testing.13

ce97 - Content - Diagnosis - Figure 1

Figure 1. Recommended Laboratory HIV Testing Algorithm for Serum or Plasma Specimens.13

A confirmed case of HIV infection is now classified in one of five stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown).9 Early infection, i.e., a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0. If the criteria for stage 0 are not met, the stage is classified as 1, 2, 3, or unknown depending on CD4+ T-lymphocyte test results or whether an opportunistic illness was diagnosed >180 days after the diagnosis of HIV infection (Table 3). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3.